August 28, 2016
Android OS is an operating system that people use widely across the world. Millions of people use it daily mainly on smartphones and other devices.
Android OS is a mobile operating system developed by Google. It is based on the Linux kernel. They also primarily designed it for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. Direct manipulation is the main focus of android’s user interface. This is done by using touch gestures that loosely correspond to real-world actions, such as swiping, tapping and pinching, to manipulate on-screen objects, along with a virtual keyboard for text input. In addition to touchscreen devices, Google has further developed Android TV for televisions, Android Auto for cars, and Android Wear for wrist watches, each with a specialized user interface. In addition, they use variants of Android on notebooks, game consoles, digital cameras, and other electronics.
Android, Inc was the initial developer. Google bought Android,Inc in 2005. They unveiled Android in 2007 along with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance. A consortium of hardware, software, and telecommunication companies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices. As of July 2013, the Google Play store has had over one million Android applications (“apps”) published – including many “business-class apps”that rival competing mobile platforms – and over 50 billion applications downloaded. An April–May 2013 survey of mobile application developers found that 71% of developers create applications for Android, and a 2015 survey found that 40% of full-time professional developers see Android as their priority target platform, which is comparable to Apple’s iOS on 37% with both platforms far above others. In September 2015, Android had 1.4 billion monthly active users.
Google released android’s source code under open source licenses, although most Android devices ultimately ship with a combination of open source and proprietary software, including proprietary software required for accessing Google services. Android is popular with technology companies that require a ready-made, low-cost and customizable operating system for high-tech devices. At the same time, as Android has no centralised update system most Android devices fail to receive security updates: research in 2015, concluded that almost 90% of Android phones in use had known but unpatched security vulnerabilities due to lack of updates and support.
Its open nature has encouraged a large community of developers and enthusiasts to use the open-source code as a foundation for community-driven projects, which deliver updates to older devices, add new features for advanced users or bring Android to devices originally shipped with other operating systems. The success of Android has made it a target for patent (and copyright) litigation as part of the so-called “smartphone wars” between technology companies.
The main hardware platform for Android is the ARM (ARMv7 and ARMv8-A architectures), with x86 and MIPS architectures.It is also officially supported in later versions of Android. Since Android 5.0 “Lollipop”, 64-bit variants of all platforms are supported in addition to the 32-bit variants. The unofficial Android-x86 project provided support for the x86 architectures ahead of the official support. They also supported MIPS architecture before Google. Since 2012, Android devices with Intel processors began to appear, including phones and tablets. While gaining support for 64-bit platforms, They ran android first on 64-bit x86 and then on ARM64.
Requirements for the minimum amount of RAM for devices running Android 5.1. The range was from 512 MB of RAM for normal-density screens, to about 1.8 GB for high-density screens. The recommendation for Android 4.4 is to have at least 512 MB of RAM. Meanwhile, for “low RAM” devices 340 MB is the required minimum amount. This does not include memory dedicated to various hardware components such as the baseband processor. Android 4.4 requires a 32-bit ARMv7, MIPS or x86 architecture processor (latter two through unofficial ports), together with an OpenGL ES 2.0 compatible graphics processing unit (GPU). Android supports OpenGL ES 1.1, 2.0, 3.0, 3.1 and as of latest major version, 3.2 and Vulkan. Some applications may explicitly require a certain version of the OpenGL ES. Such application require suitable GPU hardware in order to run.
.Android devices incorporate many optional hardware components, including still or video cameras, GPS, orientation sensors, dedicated gaming controls, accelerometers,gyroscopes, barometers, magnetometers, proximity sensors, pressure sensors, thermometers, and touchscreens. Some hardware components are not required, but became standard in certain classes of devices, such as smartphones, and additional requirements apply if they are present. Some other hardware was initially required. Nevertheless, they have relaxed or eliminated these requirements altogether. For example, they developed Android initially as a phone OS. They also required hardware such as microphones, while over time the phone function became optional. They required an autofocus camera for Android. Now this was relaxed to a fixed-focus camera if present at all. Since they dropped camera as a requirement entirely.
They did that when they began to use Android on set-top boxes.In addition to running on smartphones and tablets, several vendors run Android natively on regular PC hardware with a keyboard and mouse. In addition to their availability on commercially available hardware, similar PC hardware–friendly versions of Android OS are freely available from the Android-x86 project, including customized Android 4.4. Using the Android emulator that is part of the Android SDK, or by using BlueStacks or Andy, Android can also run non-natively on x86. Chinese companies are building a PC and mobile operating system. They based thus system on Android,. to “compete directly with Microsoft Windows and Google Android”. The Chinese Academy of Engineering noted that “more than a dozen” companies were customising Android OS. This began following a Chinese ban on the use of Windows 8 on government PCs
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