Android Lollipop is a version of the Android mobile operating system developed by Google, spanning versions between 5.0 and 5.1.1. Unveiled on June 25, 2014 at the Google I/O 2014 conference, it became available through official over-the-air (OTA) updates on November 12, 2014, for select devices that run distributions of Android serviced by Google (such as Nexus and Google Play edition devices). They made the source code available on November 3, 2014.
One of the most prominent changes in the Lollipop release is that they redesigned the user interface. It is built around a design language known as Material Design. They made that to retain a paper-like feel to the interface. Other changes include improvements to the notifications. You can access them from the lockscreen and displayed within applications as top-of-the-screen banners. Google also made internal changes to the platform, with the Android Runtime (ART) officially replacing Dalvik for improved application performance, and with changes intended to improve and optimize battery usage.
As of August 2016, statistics issued by Google indicate that 35.5% of all Android devices accessing Google Play run Lollipop.
The successor of Lollipop is Marshmallow. They released it in October 2015.
Now lets see some things about the development of Android Lollipop. Android 5.0 was first unveiled under the codename “Android L” on June 25, 2014 during a keynote presentation at the Google I/O’Developers’ conference. Alongside Lollipop, the presentation focused on a number of new Android-oriented platforms and technologies, including Android TV, in-car platform Android Auto, wearable computing platform Android Wear, and health tracking platform Google Fit.
They dedicated a part of the presentation to a new cross-platform design language referred to as “material design”. Expanding upon the “card” motifs first seen in Google Now, it is a design with increased use of grid-based layouts. It also has responsive animations and transitions, padding, and depth effects such as lighting and shadows. Designer Matías Duarte explained that “unlike real paper, our digital material can expand and reform intelligently. Material has physical surfaces and edges. Seams and shadows provide meaning about what you can touch.” You can use the material design language not only on Android, but across Google’s suite of web software as well, providing a consistent experience across all platforms.
Android 5.0 introduces a refreshed notification system. You can see Individual notifications on cards to adhere to the material design language. Now you see your notifications on the lock screen as cards. You can also view “heads up” notifications as large banners across the top of the screen, along with their respective action buttons. They also added a do-not-disturb feature for notifications. They redesigned the recent apps menu to use a three-dimensional stack of cards to represent open apps. Individual apps can also display multiple cards in the recents menu, such as for a web browser’s open tabs.
For example, there is the possibility to save photos in a raw image format. Additionally, the Dalvik virtual machine was officially replaced by Android Runtime (ART), which is a new runtime environment that was introduced as a technology preview in KitKat. ART is a cross-platform runtime which supports the x86, ARM, and MIPS architectures in both 32-bit and 64-bit environments. This technique removes the processing overhead associated with the JIT process, improving system performance.
Lollipop also aims to improve battery consumption through a series of optimizations known as “Project Volta”.
Among its changes are a new battery saver mode, job scheduling APIs which can restrict certain tasks to only occur over Wi-Fi, and batching of tasks to reduce the overall amount of time that internal radios are active. You can use the new developer tool called “Battery Historian” for tracking battery consumption by apps while in use. The Android Extension Pack APIs also provide graphics functions such as new shaders, aiming to provide PC-level graphics for 3D games on Android devices.
The Samsung Knox security framework They initially planned to use as a foundation for “Android for Work”, but instead Google opted to use its own technology for segregating personal and work-oriented data on a device, along with the accompanying APIs for managing the environment. With the “Smart Lock” feature, users can also configure devices. They do not have to unlock the device with a PIN or pattern when being on a trusted location, or in proximity of a designated Bluetooth device or NFC tag.They additionally decided to have device encryption by default on all capable devices. However, due to performance issues, they kept the change over to its successor, Android Marshmallow.
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